Is one of the biggest challenges in electronics production. Both circuit boards and components warp under thermal influence due to the different thermal expansion and residual stresses.

Especially in pressure assisted sintering, warping can lead to fractures in the component. For this reason, deflection of the components must be minimized by adjusting the expansion coefficients and by thermal treatments such as stress relief annealing.

However, warping can also lead to increased void content during soldering if a cavity forms between the component and the solder. In addition, the warping is highly temperature-dependent and can be completely reversed during the joining process. For this reason, measurements using digital stereo image correlation or TherMoiré. Additionally by thermo-mechanical simulations, the design influences on the warping can be determined and improvements can be pre-tested.

Bending, Curvature, Arching
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